Neuroinfectious diseases affect the nervous system, from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and nerves.
There are a wide range of neuroinfectious diseases, including:
- Meningitis and encephalitis, in which inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by bacterial or viral infection may lead to disability or death.
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a viral infection that can lead to loss of coordination, language ability and memory.
- HIV-associated neurodegeneration, a dementia induced by HIV infection despite successful antiretroviral therapy.
- Neurosarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease of the nervous system marked by facial weakness and headache that may lead to a chronic condition.
- HTLV 1 myelopathy hereditary spastic paraparesis, a progressive disease of the spinal cord resulting in painfully stiff, weak legs.
- Transverse myelitis, an inflammation of both sides of the spinal cord that can cause pain, weakness, paralysis, sensory problems, or bladder and bowel dysfunction.
Treatments for these diseases may include antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory or anticonvulsive medicines, among other approaches.